S. Sustainable practices are based on farming that is not only good for the environment, but also makes economic sense.
This means that a farmer may largely use organic practices, but if some of those practices don’t make economic sense (eg – they’re too expensive), the farmer might skip some of them.
Just as with biodynamic wine, there is no formal certification for a wine to be sustainable, but there are several associations that winemakers can join to formally list themselves as a sustainable vineyard.
N. There is no strict definition of ‘natural wine’
Vineyards farmed organically or biodynamically – certification strongly preferred, but uncertified wines accepted;
Fermentation with indigenous (wild) yeasts.
No additives added (such as acid, tannin, colouring) other than SO2
SO2 levels no higher than 70mg/l total
Un-fined, and no (or light) filtration
No other heavy manipulation (such as spinning cone, reverse osmosis, cryoextraction, rapid-finishing, Ultraviolet C irradiation).
O. Organic wine production is the same as all organic farming in that there must be no added pesticides or other synthetic chemicals.
Organic wine does allow the of Sulphur-Dioxide in some countries. Sulphur-Dioxide is a very common wine additive in most wine which increases the shelf-life of the wine and has a slight influence in the flavour.
In Europe and Canada the law in wine production is that an organic wine may have added sulphites, whereas in the USA the law is that wines cannot have added sulphites.
B. Biodynamic is similar to organic farming in that both take place without synthetic chemicals, but biodynamic farming incorporates ideas about a vineyard as an entire ecosystem, and also takes into account things such as astrological influences and lunar cycles.
A biodynamic wine means that the grapes are farmed biodynamically, and that the winemaker did not make the wine with any common manipulations such as yeast additions or acidity adjustments.
A wine “made from biodynamic grapes” means that a vintner used biodynamically grown grapes, but followed a less strict list of rules in winemaking.